Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||2. Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Preparation
The Company has prepared its unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and the instructions to Form 10-K and Article 8 of Regulation S-X of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. In addition, the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the Company’s proportionate share of the earnings or losses of its equity method investments and a corresponding increase or decrease to its investment, with recorded losses limited to the carrying value of the Company’s investment. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated upon consolidation.
The Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for certain financial assets and liabilities, including derivative financial instruments, which arestated at fair value. The Company also incurred debt, which was also stated at fair value and subsequently converted to equity in the Merger. Unless otherwise indicated, amounts presented in the Notes pertain to the Company’s continuing operations. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s annual consolidated financial statements and notes included in the Company’s Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 31, 2022. In management’s opinion, all adjustments of a normal recurring nature that are necessary for a fair statement of the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been included.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingencies at the reporting date, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. These estimates are based on management’s best knowledge of current events and actions the Company may undertake in the future. Actual results could materially differ from these estimates. Significant estimates made by the Company relate to revenue and associated cost recognition, the collectability of accounts receivable, the recoverability and useful lives of property and equipment, the valuation of equity warrants and warrant liabilities, fair value estimates, the recoverability of goodwill and intangible assets, the provision for income taxes, and stock-based compensation.
Property and Equipment - net
The Company capitalizes internal and external costs incurred to develop and implement internal-use software, which consist primarily of costs related to design, coding, and testing. Internal costs include salaries and allocations of fringe and stock-based compensation. When the software is ready for its intended use, capitalization ceases and such costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated life to either depreciation or cost of sales depending on the nature of the software. Costs incurred prior to and after the application development stage are charged to expense. The Company regularly reviews its capitalized software projects for impairment.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company accounts for certain assets and liabilities at fair value. Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
The process for analyzing the fair value measurement of certain financial instruments on a recurring, or non-recurring, basis includes significant judgment and estimates of inputs including, but not limited to, share price, volatility, discount for lack of marketability, application of an appropriate discount rate, and probability of liquidating events. The Company utilizes the market valuation methodology and specific option pricing methodology, such as the Monte Carlo simulation, method to value the more complex financial instruments and the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to value standard common stock warrants and common stock options.
The framework for measuring fair value specifies a hierarchy of valuation techniques based on whether the inputs to those valuation techniques are observable or unobservable. Observable inputs reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect the Company's assumptions. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurement) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurement).
The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are as follows:
Level 1 Inputs. Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities available at the measurement date.
Level 2 Inputs. Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets and liabilities in markets that are not active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable, and inputs derived from or corroborated by observable market data.
Level 3 Inputs. Inputs are unobservable inputs which reflect the Company’s own assumptions on what assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on the best available information.
The Company generates revenue from the sale of imagery and software analytical services and engineering and systems integration. Imagery and software analytical services revenue includes imagery, data, software, and analytics, including professional services. This revenue is recognized from services rendered under cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts, firm fixed price contracts, or on a time and materials basis. Engineering and systems integration revenue is from fixed price long-term construction contracts.
The Company generates revenue primarily through contracts with government agencies. Most of the fixed price contracts include multiple promises, which are generally separated as distinct performance obligations. The Company allocates the transaction price to each performance obligation based on the relative standalone selling prices using observable sales transactions where applicable.
In accordance with Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)” (“ASC 606”), the Company uses the five-step model of identifying the performance obligations contained in a contract, determining transaction price, allocating transaction price, and determining when performance obligations are satisfied can require the application of significant judgment, as further discussed below.
Revenue is measured at the fair value of consideration received or receivable and net of discounts. The Company applies a policy election to exclude transaction taxes collected from customer sales when the tax is both imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction. The Company estimates any variable consideration, and whether the transaction price is constrained, upon execution of each contract. The Company did not have any active contracts with significant variable consideration as of March 31, 2022.
Imagery & Software Analytical Services Revenue
Imagery services include imagery delivered from the Company’s satellites in orbit via its Spectra AI platform and in limited cases directly uploaded to certain customers. Customers can directly task our proprietary satellite constellation to collect and deliver imagery over specific locations, sites and regions that are critical to their operations. We offer customers several service level options that include basic plans for on-demand tasking or multi-year assured access programs, where customers can secure priority access and imaging capacity at a premium over a region of interest on a take or pay basis. Imagery performance obligations are recognized as revenue at the point-in-time when the Company delivers images to the Spectra AI platform or, in limited circumstances, ratably over the subscription period when the customer has a right to access the Spectra AI platform for unlimited archive images within delineated geographic areas. In certain firm fixed price contracts that contain imagery where it is probable the Company will receive the full contract amount or the customer prepays for future services that may not be completely satisfied, the Company’s accounting policy for unexercised performance obligations is to recognize the estimated unused amount as revenue over time in proportion to the historical pattern of rights exercised by the customer. As a result, we recognized $0.7 million and $0.0 million of estimated unused amount as revenue in the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The unrecognized amount is recorded within contract liabilities on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Data, Software, and Analytics
The Company leverages proprietary artificial intelligence ("AI") and machine learning ("ML") algorithms to analyze data coming from both the Company’s proprietary sensor network and third-party space and terrestrial sources to provide hard-to-get data, insights, and analytics for customers. The Company continues to integrate and enhance its offerings by performing contract development, while retaining the intellectual property rights. The Company also provides technology enabled professional service solutions to support customer-specific software development requests, integration, testing, and training. The Company uses system engineers to support customer efforts to manage mass quantities of data. The Company also offers professional service solutions related to object, change and anomaly detection, site monitoring, and enhanced analytics, through which the Company can detect key pattern of life changes in critical locations such as ports, airports, and construction sites; retail activity; commodities stockpiles; and other sites that contain critical commodities and supply chain information.
Our analytics services are also offered on a consumption or subscription basis and provide customers with access to our site monitoring, event monitoring and global data services. Imagery and software analytical services revenue from data, software, and analytics contracts is recognized from the rendering of services over time on a cost-plus-fixed-fee, firm fixed price, or time and materials basis as well as, at the point-in-time the customer receives access to an analytic product. For firm fixed price contracts, the Company recognizes revenue using total estimated costs to complete the performance obligation, ("Estimate at Completion" or "EAC"). A performance obligation’s EAC includes all direct costs such as labor, materials, subcontract costs, overhead and an allocatable portion of general and administrative costs. In addition, an EAC of a performance obligation includes future losses estimated to be incurred on contracts, as and when known. For contracts structured as cost-plus-fixed-fee or on a time and materials basis, the Company generally recognizes revenue based on the right-to-invoice when practically expedient, as the Company is contractually able to invoice the customer based on the control transferred to the customer in an amount that corresponds directly with the value to the customer of the entity’s performance completed to date.
Engineering and Systems Integration Revenue
The Company develops and delivers advanced launch vehicle, satellite and payload systems for a limited number of customers that leverage the Company’s capabilities in mission systems engineering and operations, ground station operations, and software and systems development. These systems are sold to government customers under fixed price contracts. The Company generally recognizes revenue over time using the cost-to-cost method to measure progress, pursuant to which the extent of progress towards completion is measured based on the ratio of costs incurred to date to the EAC. The estimation of total estimated costs at completion is subject to many variables and requires judgment. The Company recognizes changes in contract estimates on a cumulative catch-up basis in the period in which the changes are identified. Such changes in contract estimates can result in the recognition of revenue in a current period for performance obligations which were satisfied or partially satisfied in a prior period. If at any time, the estimate of profitability for a performance obligation indicates a probable anticipated loss, the Company recognizes the total loss for the performance obligation in the period it is identified. Changes in estimates related to contracts accounted for using the cost-to-cost measure of progress are recognized in the period in which such changes are made for the inception-to-date effect of the changes. For the three months ended March 31, 2022, the Company recognized $1.2 million of unfavorable cumulative adjustments to revenue directly from estimated cost increases on two engineering and systems integration contracts (Note 5). All, or a portion, of this cumulative adjustment will be recognized in future revenue as the percentage of completion increases over time. During the three months ended March 31, 2021, the Company did not recognize any unfavorable cumulative adjustments to revenue reflecting estimated cost increases on the same contracts. During the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, there was no revenue recognized from performance obligations satisfied in previous periods.
Imagery and Software Analytical Service and Engineering and Systems Integration Costs
Imagery and software analytical service costs primarily include internal aerospace and geospatial software development labor, third-party data and imagery, internal labor to support the ground stations and space operations, and cloud computing and hosting services. The Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense for those employees whose work supports the imagery and software analytical service costs we provide
to customers, under imagery and software analytical service costs, excluding depreciation and amortization. For those employees who provide engineering and systems support to customers, the stock-based compensation expense is classified under engineering and systems integration costs. For the remaining employees who generally support the Company and its business, the stock-based compensation expense is recognized under selling, general and administrative expense in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
Engineering and systems integration costs primarily include the cost of internal labor for product design, integration and engineering in support of long-term development contracts for launch vehicle, satellite and payload systems. The Company also incurs subcontract direct materials and external labor costs to build and test specific components such as the communications system, payload demands and sensor integration.
Restricted Stock Awards and Restricted Stock Units
The estimated fair value of RSAs and RSUs are measured based on the grant date fair value of the Company’s Class A common stock. In order to determine the fair value of its Class A common stock on the date of grant and prior to the Merger, Legacy BlackSky historically performed a valuation analysis using a combination of market and income approaches. Subsequent to the Merger, the Company uses the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) trading price as the fair value of the Class A common stock for valuation purposes. For all awards for which vesting is only subject to a service condition, including those subject to graded vesting, the Company has elected to use the straight-line method to recognize the fair value as compensation cost over the requisite service period.
Certain of the Company’s outstanding RSUs had performance vesting conditions that were triggered upon the consummation of the Merger. Therefore, since the performance conditions attributable to these RSUs had been met, the Company commenced recording the associated compensation expense, inclusive of a catch-up amount for the service period between their grant date and satisfaction of the performance condition, as of the closing of the Merger. The fair value of the RSUs that include a performance condition is recognized as compensation expense over the requisite service period using the accelerated attribution method, which accounts for RSUs with discrete vesting dates as if they were a separate award. Expense related to stock-based payments is classified in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss based upon employees’ cash compensation. The Company recognized stock-based compensation expense in imagery and software analytical service costs, excluding depreciation and amortization, and selling, general and administrative expense in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
The Company uses the Black-Scholes option pricing model to value all options and the straight-line method to recognize the fair value as compensation cost over the requisite service period. The fair value of each option granted was estimated as of the date of grant. The Company did not grant options in the three months ended March 31, 2022. The Company uses the following inputs when applying the Black-Scholes option pricing model:
Expected Dividend Yield. The Black-Scholes valuation model requires an expected dividend yield as an input. The dividend yield is based on historical experience and expected future changes. The Company currently has no plans to pay dividends on its Class A common stock.
Expected Volatility. The Company does not have enough historical share price history, therefore, the expected volatility was estimated based upon the historical share price volatility of comparable publicly traded companies.
Risk-free Interest Rate. The yield on actively traded non-inflation indexed U.S. Treasury notes was used to extrapolate an average risk-free interest rate based on the expected term of the underlying grants.
Expected Term. For options granted in 2021, since there is not a history of option exercises as a public company, the Company considered the option vesting terms and contractual period, as well as the demographics of the holders, in estimating the expected term. For options granted prior to 2021, the expected term was the estimated duration to a liquidation event based on a weighted average consideration of the most likely exit prospects for that stage of development. Legacy BlackSky was privately funded and, accordingly, the lack of marketability was factored into the expected term of options granted. The Company will review its estimate in the future and adjust it, if necessary, due to changes in the Company’s historical exercises.
The most significant assumption used to determine the fair value of the Legacy BlackSky equity-based awards was the estimated fair value of the Class A common stock on the grant date. In order to determine the fair value of its Class A common stock on the date of grant and prior to the Merger, Legacy BlackSky historically performed a valuation analysis using a combination of market and income approaches. Subsequent to the Merger, the Company uses the NYSE trading price as the fair value of the Class A common stock for valuation purposes.
Legacy BlackSky historically adjusted the exercise price of certain outstanding stock options. For each award with an adjusted exercise price, Legacy BlackSky calculated the incremental fair value, which was the excess of the fair value of the modified award over the fair value of the original award immediately before the modification. The incremental fair value was recognized as stock-based compensation expense immediately to the extent that the modified stock option already had vested, and for stock options that were not yet vested, the incremental fair value has been recognized as stock-based compensation expense over the remaining vesting period.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef